What a Dough Conditioner Does
A good dough conditioner does three things: It “conditions” the protein strands so they are longer and more elastic (I have no idea how that works), it then holds more gas and makes the bread lighter and taller. Your loaves should be an inch taller.
It makes the dough more acidic. Yeast grows better in a slightly acidic environment. (There is a reason that our grandmothers added a tablespoon of lemon juice to their bread. Not very precise but the idea works.)
Dough conditioners are hygroscopic. Hygroscopic materials attract moisture. I don’t think it’s much but it tends to retard staling.